--An accelerometer is an analog sensor used to measure the rate of change in velocity over a specific period of time. With some calculus one can obtain information about position and speed. The RoboRIO has a 3 axis accelerometer built in to its chassis for team use, but more can be added through the analog I/O ports.
--An analog module is part of the hardware used with the cRIO and is not required to use the RoboRIO. It gave the cRIO the ability to use analog I/O devices like Accelerometers and Gyroscopes
--Breakout boards are part of the legacy hardware used with the cRIO. Most of the cRIOs I/O modules need Breakout Boards to be useful. They're not used as often as a part of the roboRIO hardware, but other devices, like the Talon SRX motor controllers have breakout boards so teams can make use of there on board sensor I/O capabilities.
--Computer Aided Design, usually refers to one using a software package(AutoDesk, Solidworks, ect...) to design an accurate model of a system (or robot) on a computer.
--The CIM or "Chiaphua" motor is one of the most commonly used motors on FRC robots. You're standard CIM spins at 5400RPM and is commonly used with AndyMark Toughboxes and CIMple gear boxes.
--The Compact Reconfigurable Input Output (cRIO) device is produced by National Instruments. It is the predecessor to the RoboRIO and is now considered legacy hardware. It comes in 2 different forms, both 4 slot and 8 slot types, with each set of slots allowing for specific modules(Analog, Solenoid, Digital, etc...) to be plugged in to breakout the I/O available on the cRIO.
--The digital module allows teams to connect the digital I/O on the cRIO to the Digital Sidecar on the robot so teams can easily make use of the cRIOs digital I/O capabilities. It is now considered legacy hardware.
--The Digital Sidecar (DSC) is a circuit board responsible for breaking out the digital communication capabilities of the cRIO device. It is now considered legacy hardware.
--Commonly just known as the classmate, the driver's station runs the software to communicate with the team's robot both on and off the field. Rookie teams are given variations of a computer called the 2GoPC when they first start out. But due to some short-comings to these computers, teams often upgrade to other computers for added screen size and computer power for programming and CAD projects. Any computer running Windows and be a driver's station, as long as the proper software is installed.
--For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology. The non-profit organization that organizes many different robotics competitions.
--FIRST Lego League is the Elementary and Middle School level robotics competition organized by FIRST.
--FIRST Robotics Competition is the High School level robotics program organized by FIRST.
-- The Game Design Committee (GDC) designs the game for each year and develops the rules and field setup for each competition
Gear Tooth Sensor/Magnetic Encoder
--A digital sensor that reads the number of teeth that has passed by and translates this information into distance traveled. Newer versions make use of magnets placed on the faces of gears and the sensor that is placed nearby is used to see the rate at which the magnets are passing by the sensor.
-- The prevailing philosophy in FIRST competitions. It describes how teams should work together even though they are competing with each other.
--An analog sensor that reads the angular direction based on the original position. This can also be done on multiple axis' to check the roll, pitch, and yaw(x,y,z) of the robot.
Heads Up Display
--Used to convey information to operators without them having to look away from what they are doing.
Human Interface Device
--Anything that interfaces with a human is a Human Interface Device. This can be a joystick, Xbox controller, etc.
--A motor controller based on the PWM method. The Jaguar is directly proportional to that of the PWM input, forming a very linear relationship. These are not used as often because there are cheaper, more efficient motor controllers available now.
Kit Of Parts(KOP)
--The Kit of Parts comes filled with hardware and software for each team at the beginning of each build season. The Kit Of Parts for rookie or 1st year teams is slightly bigger, as it provides all of the equipment required for a new team to get started like a computer, a RoboRIO, PDB, etc.
Light Emitting Diode(LED)
--An LED is an electrical component often used to notify the user of some event. They come in a variety of sizes and colors. Some even have the capability to be linked together in strips and create a multitude of different colors.
--Optical encoders use small LEDs to read lines on tiny shiny rotating disks. Values are output to two different digital channels(normally called A and B). If A follows B then the shaft is spinning in one directions, else if B is following A the shaft is spinning in the opposite direction.
Pneumatics Control Module (PCM)
--The Pneumatics Control Module is used in conjunction with the RoboRIO to give the robot the ability to control pneumatic solenoids. This is done through the CAN 2-Wire interface.
Power Distribution Board
--The PDB distributes power from the battery to all of the robots components. Each connection has its own self-resetting fuse and each connection can provide it's own particular amount of power. The amount of power being used can be monitored on newer versions of the PDB.
--A pneumatic device that controls the pressure in the air storage tanks.
Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Loops
--A PID Loop is a method of programming where the software uses sensors and set point to determine where are motor or group of motors should move to. While PID Loops can be difficult to implement for newer programmers, they can be very useful for moving very accurate distances or keeping motors spinning at very specific speeds.
Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM)
--PWM signals are used as a control mechanism for motor controllers. It's done by turning a digital signal on and off at varying speeds(frequencies). Jaguars, Victors, and Talons can interpret these signals in order to determine how energy is given to an attached motor.
--A motor controller with only 3 states: Forward, Backward, or Off.
--The most recent robot controller used in the FIRST Robotics Competition. It makes the hardware needed to run a robot available to the user in a very compact, powerful, and rugged package. They are also much less expensive compared to their older cRIO counterpart.
--A small motor that can be moved at precise increments. Usually a camera base is moved using servo motors.
--A pneumatic valve, which is commonly used to control which end of a pneumatic cylinder has the pressure applied.
--This module is used to control 12v/24v solenoids. It is now considered legacy hardware.
--Talons are another kind of motor controller and was the first to introduce the capability of controlling a motor without the need for a fan. As Talons have evolved they have continued to improve. The most recent version being the Talon SRX. Which comes with multiple control interfaces such as PWM, CAN, USART and SPI. It also now has on-board PID control capabilities and is much more resistant to taking damage from being incorrectly wired.
--Victors are a type of motor controller and have been through several revisions over the years. The Victor 884 had a parabolic ramp for motor power output, making them difficult to use for things like drivetrains. Victor 888's replaced these with a more linear response and were the effective replacement for Jaguars because they were cheaper and smaller. The 888 was replaced with the Victor SP, which changes the case and removes the need for a fan, while keeping the linear response and further reducing cost.
Voltage Regulator Module
--Part of the robot control system that makes certain voltages available to the user. Commonly used to power LEDs and the robots Wireless Bridge
--The Wireless Bridge is a small box that allows the robot to communicate with the users computer remotely. The most recent Wireless Bridge that FIRST has recommended for use in FRC is the D-Link DAP-1522 REV B